阅读理解 : CET6-201606-1注解

阅读理解 : CET6-201606-1-1

     Interactive television advertising, which allows viewers to use their remote controls to click on advertisements, has been pushed for years. Nearly a decade ago it was predicted that viewers of "Friends", a popular situation comedy, would soon be able to purchase a sweater like Jennifer Aniston's with a few taps on their remote control. "It's been the year of interactive television advertising for the last ten or twelve years," says Colin Dixon of a digital-media consultancy.
     [46(结合第一段), 47] So the news that Cablevision, an American cable company, was rolling out interactive advertisements to all its customers on October 6th was greeted with some skepticism. During commercials, an overlay will appear at the bottom of the screen, prompting viewers to press a button to request a free sample or order a catalogue. Cablevision hopes to allow customers to buy things with their remote controls early next year.
     Television advertising could do with a boost. Spending fell by 10% in the first half of the year. [48] The popularization of digital video recorders has caused advertisers to worry that their commercials will be skipped. Some are turning to the Internet, which is cheaper and offers concrete measurements like click-through rates --- especially important at a time when marketing budgets are tight. With the launch of interactive advertising, "many of the dollars that went to the Internet will come back to the TV," says David Kline of Cablevision. Or so the industry hopes.
     In theory, interactive advertising can engage viewers in a way that 30-second spots do not. [49] Unilever recently ran an interactive campaign for its Axe deodorant (除臭剂), which kept viewers engaged for more than three minutes on average.
     The amount spent on interactive advertising on television is still small. Magna, an advertising agency, reckons it will be worth about $138 million this year. That falls far short of the billions of dollars people once expected it to generate. But DirecTV, Comcast and Time Warner Cable have all invested in it. A new effort led by Canoe Ventures, a coalition of leading cable providers, aims to make interactive advertising available across America later this year. BrightLine iTV, which designs and sells interactive ads, says interest has surged: it expects its revenues almost to triple this year. BSkyB, Britain's biggest satellite-television service, already provides 9 million customers with interactive ads.
     Yet there are doubts whether people watching television, a "lean back" medium, crave interaction. [50] Click-through rates have been high so far (around 3-4%, compared with less than 0.3% online), but that may be a result of the novelty. Interactive ads and viewers might not go well together.

  1. D What does Colin Dixon mean by saying "It’s been the year of interactive television advertising for the last ten or twelve years (Lines 4-5, Para. 1)?

    1. Interactive television advertising will become popular in 10-12 years.  

    2. Interactive television advertising has been under debate for the last decade or so.  

    3. Interactive television advertising is successful when incorporated into situation comedies.  

    4. Interactive television advertising has not achieved the anticipated results.  

    Note: D

    根据题干定位至第1段第4至行,本题询问Colin Dixon所说的这句话的意思。该句前一句指出,早在十年前人们就预计观众会在观看热播情景喜剧时通过互动式电视广告购物,而第二段首句又提到人们多少质疑美国有线电视公司重新推广这一项目,可知互动式电视广告过去并未取得人们预想的发展,故D正确。


  2. C What is the public’s response to Cablevision’s planned interactive TV advertising program?

    1. Pretty positive.  

    2. Totally indifferent.  

    3. Somewhat doubtful.  

    4. Rather critical.  

    Note: C

    根据题干中的the public's response,Cablevision定位至第2段第1句。该句指出,当有线电视网(Cablevision)和美国有线电视公司宣布将在10月6日向所有的观众推出互动式广告,随之引起人们的质疑。C项中的doubtful是原文skepticism 的同义替换,故C项"有些质疑"正确。


  3. C What is the impact of the wide use of digital video recorders on TV advertising?

    1. It has made TV advertising easily accessible to viewers.  

    2. It helps advertisers to measure the click-through rates.  

    3. It has placed TV advertising at a great disadvantage.  

    4. It enables viewers to check the sales items with ease.  

    Note: C

    根据题干中的the wide use of digital video recorders和TV advertising定位至第3段第3句。该句指出,数字视频录像机的普及使得广告商们担心他们的广告会被跳过不看,C项"它使电视广告处于很不利的地位"是正确答案。


  4. B What do we learn about Unilever’s interactive campaign?

    1. It proves the advantage of TV advertising.  

    2. It has done well in engaging the viewers.  

    3. It helps attract investments in the company.  

    4. It has boosted the TV advertising industry.  

    Note: B

    根据题干中的Unilever's interactive campaign定位至第4段第2句。前一句提到,从理论上来说,互动广告有着能吸引观众注意力这一优点,接着在第2句举了联合利华为例子来证明互动广告是如何成功吸引观众的。因此B项"它很好地让观众参与进来"是正确答案。


  5. A How does the author view the hitherto high click-through rates?

    1. They may be due to the novel way of advertising.  

    2. They signify the popularity of interactive advertising.  

    3. They point to the growing curiosity of TV viewers.  

    4. They indicate the future direction of media reform.  

    Note: A

    根据题干中的high click-through rates定位至最后一段第2句。作者在文章最后一段指出了自己对互动电视广告前景的担忧,并提出:可能是因为观众出于新奇的缘故导致高点击率。A 项中the novel way是原文中the novelty的同义转述,因此A 项"可能是由于这种广告方式很新奇"正确。


     互动式电视广告可使观众用遥控器点击广告,该广告形式已经推广了好多年。差不多十年前,就预测《老友记》 (广受欢迎的情景喜剧)的观众将很快只需按几下遥控器就能买到一件和Jennifer Aniston的一样的毛衣。数字媒体咨询公司的Colin Dixon说:"这过去十年或十二年是互动式电视广告之年。"
     所以,[46 (结合第一段), 47] Cablevision(美国有线电视公司),于10月6日将向其所有顾客推出互动式广告的消息受到了一些质疑。在播放广告期间,屏幕下方出现了覆盖广告,催促观众按下按钮索要免费样品或订购目录。Cablevision希望明年初能够让顾客用遥控器购物。
     电视广告需要推动力。今年上半年费用降低了10%。[48] 数字录像机的普及让广告商担心他们的广告将被忽略。一些广告商求助于互联网,互联网便宜并且能提供具体的测量方法,像点击率———在营销预算紧张的时候尤为重要。Cablevision的David Kline说,"流向互联网的广告费将会回到电视上来。"至少这个产业希望如此。
     从理论上讲,互动式广告能以30秒的插播广告做不到的方式吸引到观众。最近,[49] Unilever为其Axe牌除臭剂发起了互动活动,该活动中观众的平均参与时间超过了3分钟。
     用在电视交互式广告上的经费数目仍然很小。Magna (广告代理商) 估计,今年电视互动式广告的产值将达1.38 亿美元。这一数字远低于人们曾预计的数十亿美元的产值。但是,DirecTV (美国直播集团),Comcast (康卡斯特公司)以及Time Warner Cable(时代华纳有限公司)都对互动式电视广告进行了投资。Canoe Ventures是一家领先的有线电视联盟,其在主导一个项目,旨在今年年末向全美推出交互式广告。BrightLine iTV 是一家设计和销售互动广告公司,它表示人们对互动广告的兴趣高涨:预计其今年的收益几乎增加三倍。BSkyB (英国天空广播公司),英国最大的卫星电视服务公司,已经向9百万顾客提供互动广告。
     然而,对于电视"后倾"媒介、人们在看时是否渴望互动,仍存有疑虑。[50] 目前,点击率很高(大约3-4%,互联网上不足0.3%),这也许只是人们对新颖事物好奇的结果。互动广告与观众也许不能融洽相处。

 

 阅读理解 : CET6-201606-1-2

     What can be done about mass unemployment? All the wise heads agree: there're no quick or easy answers. There's work to be done, but workers aren't ready to do it --- they're in the wrong places, or they have the wrong skills. Our problems are structural, and will take many years to solve.
     [52] But don't bother asking for evidence that justifies this bleak view. There isn't any[51] On the contrary, all the facts suggest that high unemployment in America is the result of inadequate demand. Saying that there're no easy answers sounds wise, but it's actually foolish: our unemployment crisis could be cured very quickly if we had the intellectual clarity and political will to act. In other words, structural unemployment is a fake problem, which mainly serves as an excuse for not pursing real solutions.
     The fact is job openings have plunged in every major sector, while the number of workers forced into part-time employment in almost all industries has soared. Unemployment has surged in every major occupational category. Only three states, with a combined population not much larger than that of Brooklyn, have unemployment rates below 5%. So the evidence contradicts the claim that we're mainly suffering from structural unemployment. Why, then, has this claim become so popular?
     Part of the answer is that this is what always happens during periods of high unemployment --- in part because experts and analysts believe that declaring the problem deeply rooted, with no easy answers, makes them sound serious.
     I've been looking at what self-proclaimed experts were saying about unemployment during the Great Depression; it was almost identical to what Very Serious People are saying now. Unemployment cannot be brought down rapidly, declared one 1935 analysis, because the workforce is "unadaptable and untrained. It cannot respond to the opportunities which industry may offer." [53] A few years later, a large defense buildup finally provided a fiscal stimulus adequate to the economy's needs --- and suddenly industry was eager to employ those "unadaptable and untrained" workers.
     [54] But now, as then, powerful forces are ideologically opposed to the whole idea of government action on a sufficient scale to jump-start the economy. And that, fundamentally, is why claims that we face huge structural problems have been multiplying: they offer a reason to do nothing about the mass unemployment that is crippling our economy and our society.
     So what you need to know is that there's no evidence whatsoever to back these claims. We aren't suffering from a shortage of needed skills; we're suffering from a lack of policy resolve. [55] As I said, structural unemployment isn't a real problem, it's an excuse --- a reason not to act on America's problems at a time when action is desperately needed.

  1. B What does the author think is the root cause of mass unemployment in America?

    1. Corporate mismanagement.   

    2. Insufficient demand.  

    3. Technological advances.   

    4. Workers’ slow adaptation.  

    Note: B

    根据题干中的root cause和mass unemployment in America定位至第2段第3句。该段首先否定了第1段末所述的"结构性失业"的说法,然后第3句指出,所有的事实表明,美国的高失业率其实是需求不足造成的,进而分析了"结构性失业"说法的愚蠢性。B 项中insufficient demand是原文inadequate demand的同义替换,所以选B项"需求不足"正确。


  2. D What does the author think of the experts’ claim concerning unemployment?

    1. Self-evident.  

    2. Thought-provoking.  

    3. Irrational.  

    4. Groundless.  

    Note: D

    根据题干中的experts' claim concerning unemployment可定位到第2和第3段倒数第二句。在第2段第1、2句作者规劝读者不要费力去寻求证据来证明这种令人失望的观点的合理性,因为根本没有证据。继而,在第3段给出一些例证,并得出结论,该证据有力地反驳了"我们主要遭受结构性失业"的措辞。由此,D项"没有根据的"。


  3. A What does the author say helped bring down unemployment during the Great Depression?

    1. The booming defense industry.  

    2. The wise heads’ benefit package.  

    3. Nationwide training of workers.  

    4. Thorough restructuring of industries.  

    Note: A

    根据题干中的bring down unemployment和the Great Depression定位至第5段。该段最后一句,一次大规模的国防建设最终提供满足经济需求的财政刺激———突然间各行业急切雇用那些"缺乏适应能力、缺乏培训的"工人。简言之,庞大的国防计划剌激了经济,带动了就业。所以A 项"蓬勃的国防工业"正确。


  4. A What has caused claims of huge structural problems to multiply?

    1. Powerful opposition to government’s stimulus efforts.  

    2. Very Serious People’s attempt to cripple the economy.  

    3. Evidence gathered from many sectors of the industries.  

    4. Economists' failure to detect the problems in time.  

    Note: A

    根据题干中的claims, structural problems和multiply定位至倒数第2段第2句。该句指出:从根本上讲,这是宣称我们面临巨大结构性失业问题的言论一直增长的原因。这句话只是陈述了题干中提到的"巨大的结构性问题的言论增加"这一事实,而具体原因是:强大的势力在意识形态上反对政府采取大规模刺激经济的全部想法。故A 项"政府刺激经济的努力遭到强有力的反对"正确。


  5. C What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

    1. To testify to the experts’ analysis of America’s problems.  

    2. To offer a feasible solution to the structural unemployment  

    3. To show the urgent need for the government to take action.  

    4. To alert American workers to the urgency for adaptation.  

    Note: C

    根据题干中的author's purpose可定位至最后一段。文章最后一段作者呼吁读者不要相信那些所谓"专家们"的说辞,它们根本没有依据可言。进而其谴责政府的不作为,"我们不是缺乏需要的技术,而是缺乏解决策略。"作者的根本目的是吁请政府采取实际行动来解决目前的问题。C项中urgent need对应原文的desperately needed,因此C项"表达需要政府采取行动的迫切性"正确。


     采取什么措施来应对大规模失业? 所有聪明人一致同意:没有简单快捷的解决方法。工作是有的,但工作者还没做好准备 --- 他们出现在错误的岗位上,或掌握不正确的技术。我们的问题是"结构性的",需要许多年才能解决。
     [52] 但是不要白费心思寻找能证明这种令人失望的观点的佐证。因为根本就没有任何证据[51] 相反,所有的事实都表明,美国的高失业率是需求不足引起的。没有简单的解决方法听起来很明智,其实很愚蠢:如果我们有清晰的头脑和政治意愿采取行动,失业危机能很快解决掉。换句话说,结构性失业是伪难题,是不寻找有效解决办法的借口。
     事实上,每个主要的领域的工作岗位需求都大幅下降,而几乎所有行业中被迫从事兼职的工作者数量骤然上升。失业问题在各主要行业门类都已经涌现。只有3个总人口加起来比超过布鲁克林人口多一点的州的失业率低于5%。所以,这些证据与我们主要遭受结构性失业相矛盾。那么,为什么这种说法如此受欢迎?
     部分答案是,这种情况总是发生在高失业率期间,部分原因是,专家和分析师认为说这些问题根深蒂固,没有简单的解决方法会使他们话听起来很严肃。
     我一直在关注,自封的"专家"对大萧条时期的失业有何看法;他们的看法与"非常严肃的人"的看法几乎完全一致。在1935年,就有分析者称失业是不可能在短期解决的,因为劳动力"缺乏适应能力、缺乏训练,不能把握行业可能提供的机会。"[53]几年后,一次大规模的国防建设最终提供满足经济需求的财政刺激———突然间各行业急切雇用那些"缺乏适应能力、缺乏培训的"工人
     [54] 但是现在,就像当初一样,强大的势力在意识形态上反对政府采取大规模刺激经济的全部想法。从根本上讲,这是宣称我们面临巨大结构性失业问题的言论一直增长的原因:大规模失业正削弱我们的经济和破坏社会,而他们却给出了一个对大规模失业不采取任何行动的理由。
     所以,你需要明白的是没有任何证据支持这些说法。我们不是缺乏需要的技术,而是缺乏解决策略。[55] 正如我说的那样,结构性失业不是真正的问题,是借口———针对美国问题急需行动的时刻而不行动的借口

 

 

 


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