阅读理解 : CET6-201606-2注解

阅读理解 : CET6-201606-2-1

     Facing water shortages and escalating fertilizer costs, famers in developing countries are using raw sewage (下水道污水) to irrigate and fertilize nearly 49 million acres of cropland, according to a new report --- and it may not be a bad thing.
     While the practice carries serious health risks for many, [46] those dangers are outweighed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food.
     "There is a large potential for wastewater agriculture to both help and hurt great numbers of urban consumers," said Liqa Raschid-Sally, who led the study.
     The report focused on poor urban areas, where farms in or near cities supply relatively inexpensive food. Most of these operations draw irrigation water from local rivers or lakes. Unlike developed cities, however, these areas lack advanced water-treatment facilities, and rivers effectively become sewers (下水道).
     [47] When this water is used for agricultural irrigation, farmers risk absorbing disease-causing bacteria, as do consumers who eat the produce raw and unwashed. Nearly 2.2 million people die each year because of diarrhea-related (与腹泻相关的) diseases, according to WHO statistics. More than 80% of those cases can be attributed to contact with contaminated water and a lack of proper sanitation. [48] But Pay Drechsel, an environmental scientist, argues that the social and economic benefits of using untreated human waste to grow food outweigh the health risks.
     [49] Those dangers can be addressed with farmer and consumer education, he said, while the free water and nutrients from human waste can help urban farmers in developing countries to escape poverty.
     Agriculture is a water-intensive business, accounting for nearly 70% of global fresh water consumption.
     In poor, dry regions, untreated wastewater is the only viable irrigation source to keep farmers in business. In some cases, water is so scarce that farmers break open sewage pipes transporting waste to local rivers.
     Irrigation is the primary agricultural use of human waste in the developing world. But frequently untreated human waste harvested from lavatories is delivered to farms and spread as fertilizer.
     In most cases, the human waste is used on grain crops, which are eventually cooked, minimizing the risk of transmitting water-borne diseases. With fertilizer prices jumping nearly 50% per metric ton over the last year in some places, human waste is an attractive, and often necessary, alternative.
     In cases where sewage mud is used, expensive chemical fertilizer use can be avoided. The mud contains the same critical nutrients.
     "Overly strict standards often fail," [50] James Bartram, a WHO water-health expert, said. "We need to accept that fact across much of the planet, so waste with little or no treatment will be used in agriculture for good reason."

  1. C What does the author say about the use of raw sewage for farming?

    1. Its risks cannot be overestimated.  

    2. It should be forbidden altogether.  

    3. Its benefits outweigh the hazards involved.  

    4. It is polluting millions of acres of cropland.  

    Note: C


    根据题干中的use of raw sewage for farming定位到第一段。该段指出,发展中国家的农民正在使用未经处理的下水道污水进行农田灌溉;接下来一段明确指出,尽管这种做法给很多人带来很大的健康风险,但其社会和经济效益远大于这些风险,故答案为C。等义替换特征:dangers:hazards, gains:benefits



  2. C What is the main problem caused by the use of wastewater for irrigation?

    1. Rivers and lakes nearby will gradually become contaminated.  

    2. It will drive producers of chemical fertilizers out of business.  

    3. Farmers and consumers may be affected by harmful bacteria.  

    4. It will make the farm produce less competitive on the market.  

    Note: C


    根据题干中的the use of waste water for irrigation定位到第五段。该段首句指出,使用污水进行农业灌溉会产生健康风险:农民和那些生食未经清洗的农产品的消费者可能会摄入引发疾病的细菌,故答案为C。



  3. A What is environmental scientist Pay Drechsel’s attitude towards the use of untreated human waste in agriculture?

    1. Favorable.  

    2. Skeptical.  

    3. Indifferent.  

    4. Responsible.  

    Note: A


    根据题干中的人名Pay Drechsel定位到第五段末句。该句明确指出,环境科学家Pay Drechsel认为,使用未经处理的人类排泄物种植粮食所产生的社会、经济效益远大于其健康危害。这说明他支持这一做法,故答案为A。



  4. B What does Pay Drechsel think of the risks involved in using untreated human waste for farming?

    1. They have been somewhat exaggerated.  

    2. They can be dealt with through education.  

    3. They will be minimized with new technology.  

    4. They can be addressed by improved sanitation.  

    Note: B


    由题干中的人名关键词Pay Drechsel和定位到第五段末尾,并自然延展至第六段第一句 。该句指出,Pay Drechse认为使用未经处理的人类排泄物进行农业生产的风险可以通过对农民和消费者的教育得到解决,B项的dealt with是原句addressed的同义转述,故答案为B。



  5. A What do we learn about James Bartram’s position on the use of human waste for farming?

    1. He echoes Pay Drechsel’s opinion on the issue.  

    2. He challenges Liqa Raschid-Sally’s conclusion.  

    3. He thinks it the only way out of the current food crisis.  

    4. He deems it indispensable for combating global poverty.  

    Note: A


    由题干中的人名关键词James Bartram 定位到最后一段。从该段可以看出,世界卫生组织水健康专家James Bartram 认为,使用微处理或未处理废物进行农业生产是有充分理由的,因为这是由我们这个星球大部分地区面临的实际情况决定的。由此可见,他与Pay Drechsel的观点一致,对人类排泄物的使用持肯定态度,故答案为A)。



     根据最新一项报道,面对水源短缺和肥料价格逐渐上涨,发展中国家的农民正在使用未经处理的下水道污水为近4900万英亩的农田灌溉和施肥———这也许并不是坏事。
     [46] 尽管这种做法给很多人带来很大的健康风险,但是对于贫穷的城市农民和需要平价食品的消费者带来的社会和经济效益远大于这些危险
     "废水灌溉农业给大量城市消费者带来帮助和伤害的可能性都很高,"领导这项研究的Liqa Raschid-Sally说。
     该项研究集中于贫困的城市地区,城市中或周边的农场提供相对廉价的食品。农田的灌溉水大多来自当地河流或湖泊。然而,与发达城市不同,这些地区缺乏先进的水处理设施,而河流实际上就成了下水道。
     [47] 当这些水用于农业灌溉的时候,农民和那些生食未经清洗的农产品的消费者便面临摄入引发疾病的细菌的风险。根据世界卫生组织的统计,每年有将近220万人死于与腹泻相关的疾病。超过80%的案例与接触受污染水源和缺乏正规的公共卫生设施有关。[48] 但是环境科学家Pay Drechsel认为,使用未经处理的人类排泄物种植粮食所产生的社会、经济效益远大于其健康风险
     [49] 这些风险可以通过对农民和消费者的教育得到解决,他说道,而从人类废物中获得的免费水源和养料可以帮助发展中国家的城市农民摆脱贫困。
     农业是水密集型产业,约占全球淡水消耗的70%。
     在贫困、干涸的地区,未经处理的污水是唯一切实可行的灌溉来源,能让农民继续维持营生。有时候,水源太过匮乏,农民甚至会撬开污水管道把污水排入地河流的下水管道。
     在发展中国家,灌溉是人类排泄物最主要的农业用途。但从厕所收集的未经处理的人类排泄物常常被送到农场,作为肥料进行播撒。
     在多数情况下,人类排泄物用于种植农作物,而这些农作物会经过烹煮,从而将传播水生疾病的风险降到最低。去年,某些地方每公吨肥料的价格上涨了将近50%,这就使人类排泄物成为有吸引力的,而且往往是必不可少的替代选择。
     在使用污泥的情况下,可以避免使用昂贵的化学肥料。这种污泥含有同样重要的营养成分。
     [50] "过分严格的标准往往难以达到,"世界卫生组织水健康专家James Bartram说。"我们需要接受这个地球大部分地区的实际情况,所以完全有理由使用微处理或未处理废物进行农业生产。"

 

阅读理解 : CET6-201606-2-2      

      These days, nobody needs to cook. Families graze on high-cholesterol take-aways and microwaved ready-meals. Cooking is an occasional hobby and a vehicle for celebrity chefs, [51] which makes it odd that the kitchen has become the heart of the modern house: what the great hall was to the medieval castle, the kitchen is to the 21st-century home.
     The money spent on kitchens has risen with their status. In America the kitchen market is now worth $170 billion, five times the country's film industry. In the year to August 2007, IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain, sold over one million kitchens worldwide. The average budget for a "major" kitchen overhaul in 2006, calculates Remodeling magazine, was a staggering $54,000; even a "minor" improvement cost on average $18,000.
     Exclusivity, more familiar in the world of high fashion, has reached the kitchen: Robinson & Cornish, a British manufacturer of custom-made kitchens, offers a Georgian-style one which would cost £145,000-155,000 --- excluding building, plumbing and electrical work. [52] Its big selling point is that nobody else will have it: "You won't see this kitchen anywhere else in the world."
    [53] The elevation of the room that once belonged only to the servants to that of design showcase for the modern family tells the story of a century of social change. Right into the early 20th century, kitchens were smoky, noisy places, generally located underground, or to the back of the house, and as far from living space as possible. That was as it should be: kitchens were for servants, and the aspiring middle classes wanted nothing to do with them.
     But as the working classes prospered and the servant shortage set in, housekeeping became a matter of interest to the educated classes. One of the pioneers of a radical new way of thinking about the kitchen was Catharine Esther Beecher, sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe. In American Woman's Home, published in 1869, [54] the Beecher sisters recommended a scientific approach to household management, designed to enhance the efficiency of a woman's work and promote order.
     Many contemporary ideas about kitchen design can be traced back to another American, Christine Frederick, who set about enhancing the efficiency of the housewife. Her 1919 work, Household Engineering: Scientific Management in the Home, was based on detailed observation of a housewife's daily routine. She borrowed the principle of efficiency on the factory floor and applied it to domestic tasks on the kitchen floor.
     Frederick's central idea, that stove, sink and kitchen table must be placed in such a relation that useless steps are avoided entirely", inspired the first fully fitted kitchen, designed in the 1920s by Margarete Schütter-Lihotsky. [55] It was a modernist triumph, and many elements remain central features of today's kitchen.

  1. D What does the author say about the kitchen of today?

    1. It is where housewives display their cooking skills.  

    2. It is where the family entertains important guests.  

    3. It has become something odd in a modern house.  

    4. It is regarded as the center of a modern home.  

    Note: D


    根据题干中的the kitchen of today定位到首段末句。该句中冒号之前的分句明确指出,厨房已成为现代家庭的核心,其中the heart与D)中的the center意思一致;冒号之后的分句运用对比法,进一步强调了厨房的核心地位。故答案为D)。



  2. B Why does the Georgian-style kitchen sell at a very high price?

    1. It is believed to have tremendous artistic value.  

    2. No duplicate is to be found in any other place.  

    3. It is manufactured by a famous British company.  

    4. No other manufacturer can produce anything like it.  

    Note: B


    根据题干中的Georgian-style kitchen定位到第三段。由定位段可知,英国定制厨房制造商罗宾逊& 康尼什公司推出了一套乔治王时代风格的厨房,费用在145,000英镑到155,000英镑之间。它的一大卖点是绝无仅有:"你在世界其他任何地方都不会再看到这种厨房"。可知,该厨房价格高的原因是在任何地方都找不到复制品,故答案为B)。



  3. D What does the change in the status of the kitchen reflect?

    1. Improved living conditions.  

    2. Women’s elevated status.  

    3. Technological progress.  

    4. Social change.  

    Note: D


    根据题干中的the change in the status of the kitchen定位到第四段。该段首句指出,厨房从曾经只属于仆人的房间变为现代家庭设计的陈列间,这表明了厨房地位的提高,而这一变化讲述了一个世纪的社会变革,故答案为D)。



  4. A What was the Beecher sisters’ idea of a kitchen?

    1. A place where women could work more efficiently.  

    2. A place where high technology could be applied.  

    3. A place of interest to the educated people.  

    4. A place to experiment with new ideas.  

    Note: A


    根据题干中的the Beecher sisters定位到第五段。该段末句指出,在1869年出版的《美国妇女家居》一书中,Beecher姐妹推荐了一种家务管理的科学方法,旨在提高女性工作的效率并促使其有序开展。也就是说,Beecher姐妹认为厨房应该是女性能够更高效地工作的地方,故答案为A)。



  5. B What do we learn about today’s kitchen?

    1. It represents the rapid technological advance in people’s daily life.  

    2. Many of its central features are no different from those of the 1920s.  

    3. It has been transformed beyond recognition.  

    4. Many of its functions have changed greatly.  

    Note: B


    根据题干中的today's kitchen和题文同序原则定位到最后一段。该段指出,20世纪20年代由Margarete设计的第一个设备齐全的厨房,其中的许多元素仍是当今厨房的核心特色。即当今厨房的许多核心特色与20世纪20年代的厨房并无不同,故答案为B)。



     如今,人们无需下厨。家家户户都在吃高胆固醇的外卖和微波炉加热即熟的食品。烹饪成了一种偶然的爱好和名厨们表现的工具。[51] 奇怪的是,厨房已成为现代家庭的核心:厨房在21世纪家庭中的地位,犹如大厅在中世纪城堡中的地位。
     用在厨房的开支已经随着其地位的提高而上涨。在美国,厨房市场目前价值1,700亿美元,是电影产业的5倍。截至2007年8月,瑞典家具连锁公司宜家(IKEA)在全球售出了100多万套厨房用具。据《家装》杂志估算,在2006年,厨房"大"翻修的平均预算为惊人的54,000美元;即便是"小"改造也要平均花费18,000美元。
    在高级时尚界更为常见的奢华品也已进入了厨房市场:英国定制厨房制造商罗宾逊&康尼什公司推出了一套乔治王时代风格的厨房,费用在145,000英镑到155,000英鎊之间———还不包括修建、安装水管和铺设电线。[52] 它的一大卖点是绝无仅有:"你在世界其他任何地方都不会再看到这种厨房。"
     [53] 由曾经只属于仆人的房间升格到现代家庭设计的陈列间,厨房地位的提高讲述了一个世纪的社会变革的故事。刚刚步入20世纪时,厨房还是一个充满油烟,非常嘈杂的地方,通常位于地下或者屋后,尽可能地远离生活场所。情况也本应如此:厨房是仆人的工作地,而抱负远大的中产阶级则对其避而远之。
     但是,随着工人阶级的兴起和开始出现的仆人短缺,管理家务变成了知识阶层感兴趣的事情。以一种激进的新方式思考厨房的先驱之一就是Harriet Beecher Stowe的妹妹Catharine Esther Beecher。[54] 在1869年出版的《美国妇女家居》一书中,Beecher姐妹推荐了一种家务管理的科学方法,其目的是提高女性工作的效率并促使其有序开展
     关于厨房设计的许多当代理念都可以追溯到另外一个美国人:试图提高家庭主妇效率的Christine Frederick。她1919年的著作《家务工程:家庭的科学管理》就是基于对家庭主妇日常生活的详细观察。她借鉴了工厂车间的效率原则,并将其应用到厨房家务之中。
     Frederick的中心思想———"炉灶、水槽以及厨台的摆放必须满足这样一种关系:完全避免无用的步伐"———催生了20世纪20年代由Margarete Schutter-Lihotsky设计的第一个设备齐全的厨房。[55] 这是现代主义者的胜利,并且许多元素依然是当今厨房的核心特色

 

 

 


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