物理海洋学名词-A3

Glossary of Physical Oceanography and Related Disciplines

Steven K. Baum Department of Oceanography Texas A&M University

May 26, 2004

 

AABW Abbreviation for Antarctic Bottom Water.

AACW Abbreviation for Antarctic Circumpolar Water.

AAIW Abbreviation for Antarctic Intermediate Water.

AASW Abbreviation for Antarctic Surface Water.

AATE Abbreviation for Arctic Acoustic Transmission Experiment, a project of the APL at the University of Washington School of Oceanography.

Abiki An instance of the meteorological tsunami phenomenon in Nagasaki Bay. See Hibaya and Kajiura [1982].

ABF Abbreviation for Angola-Benguela Front.

ABL 1. Abbreviation for atmospheric boundary layer. 2. Abbreviation for airborne backscatter lidar.

ABP Abbreviation for Acoustic Backscatter Probes.

absolute humidity The ratio of the mass of water vapor in a sample of moist air to a unit volume of the sample. It is expressed in grams per cubic meter and also called the vapor concentration.

absolute vorticity The sum of the relative vorticity (ζ) and the planetary vorticity, i.e. ζ + f. More later.

absorptance In radiation transfer, the fraction of incoming radiation that is absorbed by a medium. The

sum of this, the transmittance, and the reflectance must equal unity.

absorption A process by which incident radiation is taken into a body and retained without reflection or transmission. It increases either the internal or the kinetic energy of the molecules or atoms composing the absorbing medium.

absorption band In atmospheric radiative transfer, a collection of absorption lines in a particular fre- quency interval.

absorption line In atmospheric radiative transfer, a discrete frequency at which an energy transition of an atmospheric gas occurs due to the absorption of incident solar radiation. The line width depends on broadening processes, the most important of which are natural, pressure (also known as collision), and Doppler broadening.

ABW See Arctic Bottom Water.

abyssal hill Small hills found only in the deep sea which rise from the ocean basin floor with heights ranging from 10 to over 500 feet and widths from a few hundred feet to a few miles. They are found along the seaward margin of most abyssal plains and originate from the spreading of mid-ocean ridges. As such, they usually form two strips parallel to mid-ocean ridges. They generally decrease in height as one traverses away from the ridges as they gradually become covered with sediment and are replaced by abyssal plains. See Fairbridge [1966].

The official IHO definition for this undersea feature name is “a tract of small elevations on the deep seafloor.”

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