物理海洋学名词-M 249

Glossary of Physical Oceanography and Related Disciplines

Steven K. Baum Department of Oceanography Texas A&M University

May 26, 2004

 

Margules’ equation In physical oceanography, an equation that allows the estimation of the slope of the surface density discontinuity associated with geostrophic motions in the sea and of fronts in the atmosphere from a knowledge of the component speeds of geostrophic motion along the interface and the density difference across the interface. The equation is given by
δz/δn=f/g*(ρ'*c'− ρ*c)/(ρ − ρ')
where δz is a finite increment of vertical distance, δn a finite increment of horizontal distance along the dip of the interfacial slope, f the Coriolis parameter, g the gravitational acceleration, ρ the density, and c the geostrophic velocity parallel with one side of the interface, and the primed variables the values of corresponding properties on the other side. This equation is helpful in clarifying the sometimes confusing problem of estimating the change of frontal slope as a function of latitude or a change in density contrast across the front at the same latitude but with different velocities of flow. See Von Arx [1962].


Mariana Basin See Siedler et al. [2004].


marine biogeography See Hedgpeth [1957a].


marine bioluminescence See Tett and Kelly [1973].


marine palynology The study of pollen deposits in marine sediment records. See Stanley [1969].


marine pollution See Duursma and Marchand [1974].


marine snow Oceanic particles which are amorphous, heterogeneous aggregates greater than 500 µm and composed of detrital material, living organisms and inorganic matter. See Fowler and Knauer [1986] and Alldredge and Silver [1988].

 

Marine XML A project to create a universal marine data standard within the XML or Extensible Markup Language environment.
[http://ioc.unesco.org/iode/activities/marine xml.htm]


MARIS Acronym for the MARine Information Service, a project in the Netherlands to improve the overview of and access to marine expertise, information, and data related to the sea and its uses. See the MARIS Web site (http://www.ssynth.co.uk/north-holland/maris/).


Maritime Province Current See Mid-Japan Sea Current.


Marmara Sea A marginal sea centered near 28.5◦E and 40.5◦N whose primary significance is to serve as part of the connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It reaches 75 km in width, 250 km in length, has a surface area of about 11,500 km2, and a maximum depth of 1390 m. It is located between the Bosporus Strait to the northeast (which connects to the Black Sea) and the and the Dardanelles to the west (which connects to the Aegean Sea).
The northern part of the Marmara comprises three topographic depressions. The eastern (1240 m), central (1389 m) and western (1097 m) basins are connected by sills about 750 m and widths (from west to east) of 20 km and 40 km. The southern continental shelf is shallow (100 m) and wide (30 km), while the northern shelf is much narrower (< 10 km).
The mean upper layer circulation is a basin scale anticyclonic gyre driven mainly by the sea level differences between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. This gyre is modified by the Bosphorous jet during high outflow conditions in spring and early summer and by the wind stress during the winter. See Besiktepe et al. [1994].

 

LZZ@108,20170723

 

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