Green Communications, Green Networking, Green Spectrum, and G-RAN (Green Radio Access Networks) for Sustainable 5G

Figure: Environment-harmonized "5G Green Communications" rooted in green building, large-scale Smart Grid and green Cloud Computing networks.

Nowadays, the whole world of telecommunications and information communities is facing a more and more serious challenge (from 2G/3G/LTE to 5G), namely on one side the transmitted multimedia-rich data are exploding at an astonishing speed and on the other side the total energy consumption by the communication and networking devices and the relevant global CO2 emission are increasing terribly. It has been pointed out that “currently 3% of the world-wide energy is consumed by the ICT (Information & Communications Technology) infrastructure that causes about 2% of the world-wide CO2 emissions, which is comparable to the world-wide CO2 emissions by airplanes or one quarter of the world-wide CO2 emissions by cars”. According to the recent research report of Ericsson, energy costs account for as much as half of a mobile operator’s operating expenses. Therefore, telecommunications applications can have a direct, tangible impact on lowering greenhouse gas emissions, power consumption, and achieve efficient recycling of equipment waste. Moreover, to find radio networking solutions that can greatly improve energy-efficiency as well as resource-efficiency (Green Communications) is not only benefit for the global environment but also makes commercial sense for telecommunication operators supporting sustainable and profitable business. Within the framework of “5G Green Communications, a number of paradigm-shifting technical approachescan be expected, including but not limited to energy-efficient network architecture & protocols, energy-efficient wireless transmission techniques (e.g., reduced transmission power & reduced radiation), cross-layer optimization methods, and opportunistic spectrum sharing without causing harmful interference pollution (i.e. Green Spectrum).  



Table of Contents
I.General Topics
1.Runtime-Controlled Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs
(Authors: Assem A. M. Bsoul, Stuart Dueck, and Steven J. E. Wilton)
2.Smart Grid and ICT's Role in Its Evolution
(Author: Hassan Farhangi)
3.Energy Saving Solutions and Practices of China Mobile
(Authors: Sen Bian, Huabin Tang, Xidong Wang, Jinsong Wu, Zhihong Zhang, Chih-Lin I, and Bill Huang)
4.Standard Methodologies for Energy Efficiency Assessment
(Authors: Raaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, and Chiara Lombardo)
5.Reciprocal Learning for Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks
(Authors: Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, Jinsong Wu, and Tao Chen)
6.Green Communications for Carbon Emission Reductions: Architectures and Standards
(Authors: Charles Despins, Fabrice Labeau, Richard Labelle, Mohamed Cheriet, Alberto Leon-Garcia, and Omar Cherkaoui)
7.The Role of ICT in the Evolution Towards Smart Grids
(Authors: Raffaele Bolla, Flavio Cucchietti, and Matteo Repetto)
8.Moving a Processing Element from Hot to Cool Spots: Is This an Efficient Method to Decrease Leakage Power Consumption in FPGAs?
(Authors: Amor Nafkha, Pierre Leray, Yves Louet, and Jacques Palicot)
9.Cloud Computing - A Greener Future for IT
(Authors: Jinzy Zhu and Xing Fang)
10.Energy-Efficient Management of Campus PCs
(Authors: Luca Chiaraviglio and Marco Mellia)
II.Focus on Wireless Communications
11.C-RAN: A Green RAN Framework
(Authors: Kuilin (Clark) Chen, Chunfeng Cui, Yuhong Huang, and Bill Huang)
12.Green Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
(Authors: Ting Zhu, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Ping Yi, and Jianqing Ma)
13.Green Wireless Communications under Quality of Service Constraints
(Authors: Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk Gursoy, and Senem Velipasalar)
14.On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-off in Cellular Systems
(Authors: Fabien Heliot, Efstathios Katranaras, Oluwakayode Onireti, and Muhammad Ali Imran)
15.Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management
(Authors: Adnan Aijaz, Oliver Holland, Paul Pangalos, Hamid Aghvami, and Hanna Bogucka)
16.Toward Energy-Efficient Operation of Base Stations in Cellular Wireless Networks
(Authors: Kyuho Son, Hongseok Kim, Yung Yi, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari)
17.Green Wireless Access Networks
(Authors: Istvan Godor, Pal Frenger, Oliver Blume, Hauke Holtkamp, Muhammad Imran, Attila Vidacs, Peter Fazekas, Dario Sabella, Emilio Calvanese Strinati, Rohit Gupta, Pekka Pirinen, and Albrecht Fehske)
18.Energy Efficient Communications in MIMO Wireless Channels
(Authors: Vineeth S. Varma, E. Veronica Belmega, Samson Lasaulce, and Merouane Debbah)
19.Minimising Power Consumption to Achieve More Efficient Green Cellular Radio Base Station Designs
(Authors: John S. Thompson, Peter M. Grant, Simon Fletcher, and Tim O'Farrell)
20.Energy Conservation of Mobile Terminals in Multi-cell TDMA Networks
(Authors: Liqun Fu, Hongseok Kim, Jianwei Huang, Soung Chang Liew, and Mung Chiang)
21.Energy Efficiency for Wireless Relay Systems
(Authors: Jinho Choi, Duc To, Weixi Xing, Ye Wu, and Shugong Xu)
22.Holistic Approach to Green Wireless Communications Based on Multicarrier Technologies
(Authors:Hanna Bogucka, Adrian Kliks, Pawel Kryszkiewicz, and Oliver Holland)
23.Green Video Streaming over Cellular Networks
(Authors: Yingsong Huang, Shiwen Mao, and Yihan Li)
III.Focus on Wireline Communications
24.Trading off Energy and Forwarding Performance in Next-Generation Network Devices
(Authors: Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Franco Davoli, and Paolo Lago)
25.Energy Efficient VI Planning over Converged Optical Network and IT Resources
(Authors: Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Konstantinos Georgakilas, Shuping Peng, Reja Nejabati, Eduard Escalona, and Dimitra Simeonidou)
26.Energy Aware Techniques in IP-Over-WDM Backbone Networks
(Authors: Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Vincenzo Eramo, and Marco Listanti)
27.Energy-Aware Network Management and Content Distribution
(Authors: Luca Chiaraviglio and Ibrahim Matta)
28.Energy Saving Strategies in Fixed Access Networks
(Authors: Bjorn Skubic, Alexander Lindstrom, Einar In de Betou, Ioanna Pappa)
  • Honggang Zhang, Andreas Gladisch, Mario Pickavet, Zhifeng Tao, and Werner Mohr, "Energy Efficiency in Communications," IEEE Communications Magazine (Guest Editorial for Feature Topics Issue on Green Communications), November 2010. (Download in PDF)    
  • Hongggang Zhang, Andreas Gladisch, Mario Pickavet, Zhifeng Tao, and Werner Mohr, "Energy Efficiency in Communications: Part II," IEEE Communications Magazine (Guest Editorial for Feature Topics Issue on Green Communications), June 2011. (Download in PDF
  • Honggang Zhang, Andreas Gladisch, Mario Pickavet, Zhifeng Tao, and Werner Mohr, "Energy Efficiency in Communications: Part III," IEEE Communications Magazine (Guest Editorial for Feature Topics Issue on Green Communications), August 2011. (Download in PDF)
  • Honggang Zhang,"Cognitive Green Communications: When Energy Meets Intelligence,"Keynote Speech at the IEEE ISCIT 2012 Workshop, Gold Coast, Australia, October 4, 2012. (, Download in PDF)
  • Tao Chen, Honggang Zhang, Yang Yang, and Kari Horneman, Network Energy Saving Techniques in Wireless Access Networks,” Green Radio Communication Networks (edited by E. Hossain, V. K. Bhargava, and G. Fettweis), Cambridge University Press, August 2012.
  • Rongpeng Li, Zhifeng Zhao, Yan Wei, Xuan Zhou, and Honggang Zhang, GM-PAB: A Grid-based Energy Saving Scheme with Predicted Traffic Load Guidance for Cellular Networks,” IEEE ICC 2012, Ottawa, Canada, June 2012. 
  • Rongpeng Li, Zhifeng Zhao, Xuan Zhou, and Honggang Zhang, “Energy Savings Scheme in Radio Access Network via Compressed Sensing Based Traffic Load Prediction,” European Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (ETT), November 2012. (, download in PDF)
  • Rongpeng Li, Zhifeng Zhao, Xianfu Chen, and Honggang Zhang, “Energy Saving through a Learning Framework in Greener Cellular Radio Access Networks,” IEEE Globecom 2012, Anaheim, USA, December 2012.
  • Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, and Tao Chen Conjectural Variations in Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning for Energy-Efficient Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks,” IEEE WCNC 2012, Paris, France, April 2012.
  • Yan Wei, Zhifeng Zhao, and Honggang Zhang, “Dynamic Energy Savings in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks Based on Traffic Prediction Using Compressive Sensing,” Proc. IEEE ISCIT 2011,October 2011.
  • Jie Yang, Zhifeng Zhao, and Honggang Zhang, "Energy Efficient Data Gathering Based on Distributed iLT Coding,” Proc. IEEE ISCIT 2011, October 2011.
  •  Yu Xia, Zhifeng Zhao, and Honggang Zhang, "Distributed Anomaly Event Detection in Wireless Networks Using Compressed Sensing,” Proc. IEEE ISCIT 2011, October 2011.
  • Longwei Wang, Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, and Honggang Zhang, "Exploration vs Exploitation for Distributed Channel Access in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Multiuser Case Study,” Proc. IEEE ISCIT 2011, October 2011.
  • Xiao Wang, Zhifeng Zhao, Yu Xia, and Honggang Zhang, "Compressed Sensing for Efficient Random Routing in Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE Globecom 2010 (ASIT Workshop), Miami, USA, December 2010.
  • Xiao Wang, Zhifeng Zhao, Yu Xia, and Honggang Zhang, "Efficient Random Routing Based on Compressed Sensing in Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks,” Proc. IEEE ISCIT 2010, October 2010.
  • Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, and Tao Chen Applying Multi-agent Q-learning Scheme in Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks for Green Communications,” Proc. IEEE PIMRC 2010 (W-Green Workshop), Turkey, September 2010. (Download in PDF)

Relevant external links:
1.     IEEE Communications Magazine Feature Topic Issue on "Green Communications",
2.  The 2012 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications (IEEE GreenCom 2012), Besancon, France,
3.  The 2010 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom 2010),  
4.     IEEE ICC 2009 Special Panel on "Green Communications",
5.     GreenComm'09 (The First IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications),
6.     The 2nd IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications, in conjunction with the 2009 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM2009),
7.     GreenComm'10 - The 3rd IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications, in conjunction with the 2010 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM 2010),
8.  GreenComm'11 - The 4th IEEE International Workshop on Green Communications, in conjunction with the IEEE ICC 2011,
9.  e-Energy 2012: The Third International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, May 9-11, 2012, Madrid, Spain,
10.  e-Energy 2010: The First International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, April 13-15, 2010, Univeristy of Passau, Germany,
11.     The 1st International Workshop on Green Wireless 2008 (W-GREEN), Lapland, Finland, September 2008,
12.     Prof. David J. C. MacKay, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK,
13.     The Third International Workshop on Wireless Community Networks (COMNETS 2008, August 28, 2008,, Keynote Speech: "Cognitive Radio for Green Communications and Green Spectrum",
14.   CrownCom 2009 (The 4th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications) Special Panel on "Cognitive Radio for Green Communications" - "Green Communications and Green Spectrum: Is Cognitive Radio an Enabler or Anyone else?",
15. The 1st IEEE International Workshop on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm 2010), in conjunction with IEEE ICC 2010, Cape Town, South Africa,
16. IEEE Smart Grid - "The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy...",
17. IEEE SmartGridComm 2010 - The 1st IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm),,
Background Information: European Commission Press Release (Reference:  IP/09/393    Date:  12/03/2009) 
 "Commission pushes ICT use for a greener Europe -  As part of its effort to combat climate change and drive economic recovery, the European Commission today called on Member States and industry to use information and communications technologies (ICT) to improve energy efficiency. These technologies are expected to reduce total carbon emissions in Europe by up to 15% by 2020. ICT can not only improve monitoring and management of energy use in factories, offices and in public spaces but above all help make people more aware of how they use energy. With smart metering in their homes, for example, consumers have been found to reduce their energy consumption by as much as 10%..."


Figure: The roadmap to converged Smart Grid and Green Networks defined by Dr Murray Milner in 2009. (Courtesy of Dr Murray Milner)

 Figure: The vision of Smart Grid and Green Networks defined by Cisco in 2009. (As a Reference)


Figure: IEEE SmartGridComm 2010 Workshop (in conjunction with IEEE ICC 2010).